Monday, 16 June 2014

100 Most Often Mispelled Misspelled Words in English

100 Most Often Mispelled Misspelled Words in English

Here are the 100 words most commonly misspelled ('misspell' is one of them). Dr. Language has provided a one-stop cure for all your spelling ills. Each word has a mnemonic pill with it and, if you swallow it, it will help you to remember how to spell the word. Master the orthography of the words on this page and reduce the time you spend searching dictionaries by 50%. (Use the time you save celebrating in our gameroom.)

A
  • acceptable - Several words made the list because of the suffix pronounced -√™bl but sometimes spelled -ible, sometimes -able. Just remember to accept any table offered to you and you will spell this word OK.
  • accidentally - It is no accident that the test for adverbs on -ly is whether they come from an adjective on -al ("accidental" in this case). If so, the -al has to be in the spelling. No publical, then publicly.
  • accommodate - Remember, this word is large enough to accommodate both a double "c" AND a double "m."
  • acquire - Try to acquire the knowledge that this word and the next began with the prefix ad- but the [d] converts to [c] before [q].
  • acquit - See the previous discussion.
  • a lot - Two words! Hopefully, you won't have to allot a lot of time to this problem.
  • amateur - Amateurs need not be mature: this word ends on the French suffix -eur (the equivalent of English -er).
  • apparent - A parent need not be apparent but "apparent" must pay the rent, so remember this word always has the rent.
  • argument - Let's not argue about the loss of this verb's silent [e] before the suffix -ment.
  • atheist - Lord help you remember that this word comprises the prefix a- "not" + the "god" (also in the-ology) + -ist "one who believes."

B

  • believe - You must believe that [i] usually comes before [e] except after [c] or when it is pronounced like "a" as "neighbor" and "weigh" or "e" as in "their" and "heir." Also take a look at "foreign" below. (The "i-before-e" rule has more exceptions than words it applies to.)
  • bellwether - Often misspelled "bellweather." A wether is a gelded ram, chosen to lead the herd (thus his bell) due to the greater likelihood that he will remain at all times ahead of the ewes.

C

  • calendar - This word has an [e] between two [a]s. The last vowel is [a].
  • category - This word is not in a category with "catastrophe" even if it sounds like it: the middle letter is [e].
  • cemetery - Don't let this one bury you: it ends on -ery nary an -ary in it. You already know it starts on [c], of course.
  • changeable - The verb "change" keeps its [e] here to indicate that the [g] is soft, not hard. (That is also why "judgement" is the correct spelling of this word, no matter what anyone says.)
  • collectible - Another -ible word. You just have to remember.
  • column - Silent final [e] is commonplace in English but a silent final [n] is not uncommon, especially after [m].
  • committed - If you are committed to correct spelling, you will remember that this word doubles its final [t] from "commit" to "committed."
  • conscience - Don't let misspelling this word weigh on your conscience: [ch] spelled "sc" is unusual but legitimate.
  • conscientious - Work on your spelling conscientiously and remember this word with [ch] spelled two different ways: "sc" and "ti." English spelling!
  • conscious - Try to be conscious of the "sc" [ch] sound and all the vowels in this word's ending and i-o-u a note of congratulations.
  • consensus - The census does not require a consensus, since they are not related.

D

  • daiquiri - Don't make yourself another daiquiri until you learn how to spell this funny word-the name of a Cuban village.
  • definite (ly) - This word definitely sounds as though it ends only on -it, but it carries a silent "e" everywhere it goes.
  • discipline - A little discipline, spelled with the [s] and the [c] will get you to the correct spelling of this one.
  • drunkenness - You would be surprised how many sober people omit one of the [n]s in this one.
  • dumbbell - Even smart people forget one of the [b]s in this one. (So be careful who you call one when you write.)

E

  • embarrass (ment) - This one won't embarrass you if you remember it is large enough for a double [r] AND a double [s].
  • equipment - This word is misspelled "equiptment" 22,932 times on the web right now.
  • exhilarate - Remembering that [h] when you spell this word will lift your spirits and if you remember both [a]s, it will be exhilarating!
  • exceed - Remember that this one is -ceed, not -cede. (To exceed all expectations, master the spellings of this word, "precede" and "supersede" below.)
  • existence - No word like this one spelled with an [a] is in existence. This word is a menage a quatre of one [i] with three [e]s.
  • experience - Don't experience the same problem many have with "existence" above in this word: -ence!

F

  • fiery - The silent "e" on "fire" is also cowardly: it retreats inside the word rather than face the suffix -y.
  • foreign - Here is one of several words that violate the i-before-e rule. (See "believe" above.)

G

  • gauge - You must learn to gauge the positioning of the [a] and [u] in this word. Remember, they are in alphabetical order (though not the [e]).
  • grateful - You should be grateful to know that keeping "great" out of "grateful" is great.
  • guarantee - This word is not spelled like "warranty" even though they are synonyms.

H

  • harass - This word is too small for two double letters but don't let it harass you, just keep the [r]s down to one.
  • height - English reaches the height (not heighth!) of absurdity when it spells "height" and "width" so differently.
  • hierarchy - The i-before-e rule works here, so what is the problem?
  • humorous - Humor us and spell this word "humorous": the [r] is so weak, it needs an [o] on both sides to hold it up.

I

  • ignorance - Don't show your ignorance by spelling this word -ence!
  • immediate - The immediate thing to remember is that this word has a prefix, in- "not" which becomes [m] before [m] (or [b] or [p]). "Not mediate" means direct which is why "immediately" means "directly."
  • independent - Please be independent but not in your spelling of this word. It ends on -ent.
  • indispensable - Knowing that this word ends on -able is indispensable to good writing.
  • inoculate - This one sounds like a shot in the eye. One [n] the eye is enough.
  • intelligence - Using two [l]s in this word and ending it on -ence rather than -ance are marks of . . . you guessed it.
  • its/it's - The apostrophe marks a contraction of "it is." Something that belongs to it is "its."

J

  • jewelry - Sure, sure, it is made by a jeweler but the last [e] in this case flees the scene like a jewel thief. However, if you prefer British spelling, remember to double the [l]: "jeweller," "jewellery." 
  • judgment - Traditionally, the word has been spelled judgment in all forms of the English language. However, the spelling judgement (with e added) largely replaced judgment in the United Kingdom in a non-legal context. In the context of the law, however, judgment is preferred. This spelling change contrasts with other similar spelling changes made in American English, which were rejected in the UK. In the US at least, judgment is still preferred and judgement is considered incorrect by many American style guides.

K

  • kernel (colonel) - There is more than a kernel of truth in the claim that all the vowels in this word are [e]s. So why is the military rank (colonel) pronounced identically?

L

  • leisure - Yet another violator of the i-before-e rule. You can be sure of the spelling of the last syllable but not of the pronunciation.
  • liaison - Another French word throwing us an orthographical curve: a spare [i], just in case. That's an [s], too, that sounds like a [z].
  • library - It may be as enjoyable as a berry patch but that isn't the way it is spelled. That first [r] should be pronounced, too.
  • license - Where does English get the license to use both its letters for the sound [s] in one word?

M

  • maintenance - The main tenants of this word are "main" and "tenance" even though it comes from the verb "maintain."
  • maneuver - Man, the price you pay for borrowing from French is high. This one goes back to French main + oeuvre "hand-work," a spelling better retained in the British spelling, "manoeuvre."
  • medieval - The medieval orthography of English even lays traps for you: everything about the MIDdle Ages is MEDieval or, as the British would write, mediaeval.
  • memento - Why would something to remind of you of a moment be spelled "memento?" Well, it is.
  • millennium - Here is another big word, large enough to hold two double consonants, double [l] and double [n].
  • miniature - Since that [a] is seldom pronounced, it is seldom included in the spelling. This one is a "mini ature;" remember that.
  • minuscule - Since something minuscule is smaller than a miniature, shouldn't they be spelled similarly? Less than cool, or "minus cule."
  • mischievous - This mischievous word holds two traps: [i] before [e] and [o] before [u]. Four of the five vowels in English reside here.
  • misspell - What is more embarrassing than to misspell the name of the problem? Just remember that it is mis + spell and that will spell you the worry about spelling "misspell."

N

  • neighbor - The word "neighbor" invokes the silent "gh" as well as "ei" sounded as "a" rule. This is fraught with error potential. If you use British spelling, it will cost you another [u]: "neighbour."
  • noticeable - The [e] is noticeably retained in this word to indicate the [c] is "soft," pronounced like [s]. Without the [e], it would be pronounced "hard," like [k], as in "applicable."

O

  • occasionally - Writers occasionally tire of doubling so many consonants and omit one, usually one of the [l]s. Don't you ever do it.
  • occurrence - Remember not only the occurrence of double double consonants in this word, but that the suffix is -ence, not -ance. No reason, just the English language keeping us on our toes.

P

  • pastime - Since a pastime is something you do to pass the time, you would expect a double [s] here. Well, there is only one. The second [s] was slipped through the cracks in English orthography long ago.
  • perseverance - All it takes is perseverance and you, too, can be a (near-) perfect speller. The suffix is -ance for no reason at all.
  • personnel - Funny Story: The assistant Vice-President of Personnel notices that his superior, the VP himself, upon arriving at his desk in the morning opens a small, locked box, smiles, and locks it back again. Some years later when he advanced to that position (inheriting the key), he came to work early one morning to be assured of privacy. Expectantly, he opened the box. In it was a single piece of paper which said: "Two Ns, one L."
  • playwright - Those who play right are right-players, not playwrights. Well, since they write plays, they should be "play-writes," wright right? Rong Wrong. Remember that a play writer in Old English was called a "play worker" and "wright" is from an old form of "work" (wrought iron, etc.)
  • possession - Possession possesses more [s]s than a snake.
  • precede - What follows, succeeds, so what goes before should, what? No, no, no, you are using logic. Nothing confuses English spelling more than common sense. "Succeed" but "precede." Precede combines the Latin words "pre" and "cedere" which means to go before.
  • principal/principle - The spelling principle to remember here is that the school principal is a prince and a pal (despite appearances)--and the same applies to anything of foremost importance, such as a principal principle. A "principle" is a rule. (Thank you, Meghan Cope, for help on this one.)
  • privilege - According to the pronunciation (not "pronounciation"!) of this word, that middle vowel could be anything. Remember: two [i]s + two [e]s in that order.
  • pronunciation - Nouns often differ from the verbs they are derived from. This is one of those. In this case, the pronunciation is different, too, an important clue.
  • publicly - Let me publicly declare the rule (again): if the adverb comes from an adjective ending on -al, you include that ending in the adverb; if not, as here, you don't.

Q

  • questionnaire - The French doing it to us again. Double up on the [n]s in this word and don't forget the silent [e]. Maybe someday we will spell it the English way.

R

  • receive/receipt - I hope you have received the message by now: [i] before [e] except after . . . .
  • recommend - I would recommend you think of this word as the equivalent of commending all over again: re+commend. That would be recommendable.
  • referred - Final consonants are often doubled before suffixes (remit: remitted, remitting). However, this rule applies only to accented syllables ending on [l] and [r], e.g. "rebelled," "referred" but "traveled," "buffered" and not containing a diphthong, e.g. "prevailed," "coiled."
  • reference - Refer to the last mentioned word and also remember to add -ence to the end for the noun.
  • relevant - The relevant factor here is that the word is not "revelant," "revelent," or even "relevent." [l] before [v] and the suffix -ant.
  • restaurant - 'Ey, you! Remember, these two words when you spell "restaurant." They are in the middle of it.
  • rhyme - Actually, "rime" was the correct spelling until 1650. After that, egg-heads began spelling it like "rhythm." Why? No rhyme nor reason other than to make it look like "rhythm."
  • rhythm - This one was borrowed from Greek (and conveniently never returned) so it is spelled the way we spell words borrowed from Greek and conveniently never returned.

S

  • schedule - If perfecting your spelling is on your schedule, remember the [sk] is spelled as in "school." (If you use British or Canadian pronunciation, why do you pronounce this word [shedyul] but "school," [skul]? That has always puzzled me.)
  • separate - How do you separate the [e]s from the [a]s in this word? Simple: the [e]s surround the [a]s.
  • sergeant - The [a] needed in both syllables of this word has been pushed to the back of the line. Remember that, and the fact that [e] is used in both syllables, and you can write your sergeant without fear of misspelling his rank.
  • supersede - This word supersedes all others in perversity. This is the only English word based on this stem spelled -sede. Supersede combines the Latin words "super" and "sedere" which means to sit above.

T

  • their/they're/there - They're all pronounced the same but spelled differently. Possessive is "their" and the contraction of "they are" is "they're." Everywhere else, it is "there."
  • threshold - This one can push you over the threshold. It looks like a compound "thresh + hold" but it isn't. Two [h]s are enough.
  • twelfth - Even if you omit the [f] in your pronunciation of this word (which you shouldn't do), it is retained in the spelling.
  • tyranny - If you are still resisting the tyranny of English orthography at this point, you must face the problem of [y] inside this word, where it shouldn't be. The guy is a "tyrant" and his problem is "tyranny." (Don't forget to double up on the [n]s, too.)

U

  • until - I will never stop harping on this until this word is spelled with an extra [l] for the last time!

V

  • vacuum - If your head is not a vacuum, remember that the silent [e] on this one married the [u] and joined him inside the word where they are living happily ever since. Well, the evidence is suggestive but not conclusive. Anyway, spell this word with two [u]s and not like "volume."

WXYZ

  • weather - Whether you like the weather or not, you have to write the [a] after the [e] when you spell it.
  • weird - This word is an exception to the rule about [i] before [e] except after...? So, rules can be broken!

Sunday, 15 June 2014

KASIH IBU - SAYAINGI IBU KITA

Terharu dengan cerita yg disampaikan oleh ustaz dalam program Al-Kuliyah TV3 petang ini. Kasih Ibu...cerita dari seorang pemilik dusun yang telah menembak seekor monyet yg sedang makan bunga durian di dusunnya. Apabila terkena tembakan yg tepat maka bercucuran darah keluar dan monyet tersebut meraung kesakitan terkena peluru kebadannya. Pemilik dusun tersebut baru menyedari yg mana monyet ditembak tersebut adalah seekor ibu monyet yang masih ada baby berpaut di belakang ibunya. Sedang ibu monyet menjerit kesakitan yg melampau, baby monyet juga turut menjerit ketakutan. Pemilik dusun melihat sendiri keadaan ibu monyet yg berjujuran darah keluar dari badan, telinga, mulut dan matanya tetapi apabila melihat babynya menjerit dalam ketakutan ibu monyet terus memaut dan memeluk anaknya lalu terus menyusukan anaknya sehingga anaknya diam dan ditenangkan walaupun ketika itu, ibu monyet dalam kesakitan dan dipenghujung nyawa.Apabila nyawanya sampai kehujung, ibu monyet telah meletakan babynya ke dahan yg lebih selamat dan memaut sebatang dahan sehinggalah terjatuh ke bawah. Pemilik dusun menghampiri kepada ibu monyet dan melihat sendiri sebelum nafas terakhir ibu monyet menoleh keanaknya sambil melambaikan tangan dengan lelehan air mata. Pemilik dusun tersedar bagaimana Allah SWT telah melihatkan kepadanya kasih seekor binatang iaitu kasih ibu kepada anaknya. SAYANGI LA IBU ANDA...MELIHAT WAJAH IBU ADALAH IBADAH.

HAPPY FATHER'S DAY 2014


Any man can father a child but it takes a real man to be a father. 
Daddy you're someone I'll always look up to no matter how tall I grow. You're an amazing dad & I'm truly grateful for your unconditional love, care, support and most importantly the trust that you have in me. I promise to never let you down. 
Happy father's day! 
With lots of love , 

Wednesday, 11 June 2014

CHAPTER SEVEN:

I was alone now, fighting Herobrine. Eventually he came to stab me in the chest. I fell to the ground, with no one to heal me this time, but is had one last tactic up my sleeve; self-destruction. I killed myself and I was teleported to another world.
CHAPTER SIX:

[ZOEY'S P.O.V]
I saw darkness all around me. Nothing to see here. I woke up soon after and saw a figure. He laughed at me and stabbed me as soon as possible. Was it Herobrine? I thought as I woke up in fear. I saw Aliah in front of me, and said, "What happened?". "You fell unconscious, Zoey. It must have been the wound in the beginning.". "How's things going right now?". "Final wave of Hellia is coming. In five minutes.". I geared up and headed out of the kingdom. It still remained strong after five long years.

[ALIAH'S P.O.V]
As Zoey headed out, he left behind something.  Something really important. A small cube with a button on it which said, "Time Machine". Wait, Zoey had a time machine? That surprised me. I also went to battle. Eventually, I got injured seriously and I was teleported back to my room where Zoey was there. "Hang in there, Aliah," he said as I fell unconscious.
CHAPTER FIVE:

Once we woke up, we realised it was morning. We went out and saw our enemy, the first wave of the Nether forces (which I will call Hellia). I told Aliah to hand me a water sword (a diamond sword engraved with the power of the water) and my enchanted armour. She also put on hers and we went out to battle along with the rest of our residents. The battle commenced for a few minutes only.

Five years later, we were resting in our bed. The only thing is, the wound from the impaled sword came back to bite me. She was healing me as I fell unconscious.
CHAPTER FOUR:

I thought of it as I went back home. When I got there, Aliah was waiting for me, all ready in the bed to sleep. It was late night already, so we decided to sleep. The next morning, the project continued. Eventually our kingdom under our command became a successful one, equipped. Though our men and women had weapons, we hired a few of them as guards and knights. Then we did the cannons, TNT ones. Our castle, well, we just used our own house. It seemed fine enough. I looked at my sword. Glowing purple, it started to turn black and purple. They were the Nether portal colours. I tried stabbing a dummy. It burned as if it was hit by fire. From bloody red, it turned black and purple. This seemed mysterious. Aliah and I went up to the balcony. There she sat near me, and I did not know what I was doing, but I embraced her but still had a fear of rejection. She embraces me back and we lay on our bed in the bedroom (she's sleeping on my bed with me) and she told, "Thanks for accepting me in, Zoey. It's just, I know you like me. Thanks for that especially." What? She knew? It did not bother me. I just embraced her on the bed.
CHAPTER THREE:

I decided to get started with the walls. She preferred obsidian due to its immense blast resistance. I found a bedrock forger who mined bedrock, so we took bedrock but took obsidian as the inside. We found some helpers, and built our walls high and strong. I wanted to protect Aliah. She was the queen. I gave her a strong Unbreaking III enchanted diamond sword in case of any trouble. Next came weapons. I gathered all of the people and called for string, sticks, diamonds, flint and feathers. I got enough to make fifty bows, fifty diamond swords and 3200 arrows, enough for the fifty residents of the city, excluding me and Aliah. She had the diamond sword, and I gave her a special pair of diamond armor. It was engraved with runes. Tracker runes. It'd help me find her whenever I needed her or she needed my help. As evening came. We went up the walls and enjoyed the sunset. I talked with her. She handed me a bow which never broke when used. "Aliah, you know how to make unbreakable items?" "Yes, Zoey." "So that's your trick?" "That's just one of them.". The conversation ended as she headed back to our place. Then began my feelings for her. I felt a slight of change in my heartbeat. "Heartbeat of nervousness," I thought, "But how?". Did I like her?
CHAPTER TWO:

Walking around outside of the house with her, I started to tell her all of my adventures from the day I was born to the final event where I fought Herobrine. She listened to me clearly, as she had known me for my reputation of Hero of Minecraftia. As we got back to her place, I realised Aliah lived across the street to my place. I brought her to my place. It was a fine one. She lived in somehow a moderate place so I decided to let her stay at my place, seeing to as I adventured a lot. Accepted, reply came. I had a three-storey stone brick terrace, but one floor was underground so it looked like two floors. Thanks to my vast knowledge of red-stone, I made a vast light system with switches and lamps. Bottom floor (underground) was my where my weaponry was held. Ground floor would be my living room. Now for my top floor. I had three rooms, one was my bedroom and the other two were the kitchen and the forge for my armor. So I decided Aliah could stay in my bedroom. I made another bed with some wool from a sheared sheep and some wooden planks and put it in a small corner. I thought about making another room for her later on. I showed her the weaponry room. It had diamond swords and enchanted diamond armor, and Aliah gave me the diamond sword which Herobrine impaled into my chest. It had blood and turned red. I became a worthy user, and that sword became one of my legendary companions. Same went to Aliah. I told her, "Seeing as I am the king of this town and I don't have a queen, do you want to become one?". Reply came, "Yes, I'd love to. And besides, I know a few tips and tricks that could help. And, you're the hero of Minecraftia, it'd be an honour to work with you."."You're not working with me, Aliah. You're ruling with me."
CHAPTER ONE:

Death surely came to me this time, as I fell to the ground, sword impaled into my chest. I laid there, unconscious, maybe dead, but death did not come. A girl found me and brought me to her then healed me from start to end. I woke up, with memory of what had happened before I fell. I looked around me and found myself in a room, obviously not my room, or any room in my house.  I fought Herobrine, a mob slayer who lived in Hell, or known as the Nether.  Equipped with an enchanted diamond sword, he impaled me thanks to lava around us.  I was transported back to the Overworld where I almost died. When I saw the girl that saved me as I went out of her room, I could not believe my eyes. She was pretty from head to toes. Her name was Aliah, and she was the girl I soon came to like.
B2C1: THE INTRODUCTION

I woke up in another world, like my previous one, but different. It was a very small world, with big cities. I wandered around, looking around me. I became a legend for defeating the legendary Herobrine, but disappeared mysteriously. Looks like the truth was false. I looked at its big arena and saw my own face there. I walked there and looked at the statue. The title said;

ZOEY, THE LEGEND
The legend who killed Herobrine, only to disappear soon after. This very City became as it was today thanks to him. Known for his enchanted weaponry. His legendary obsidian sword is at the Minecraftia Museum.

I went to the museum and found two of my swords, the obsidian and the water swords. As I was looking at the exhibit, a girl came up to me. That girl soon turned my life upside down and we eventually settled down and got married. She said, "Who are you? Are you...you...Zoey?" "Yes," I replied. "You came here from the past and defeated Herobrine back then?" "I'll tell the whole thing to you. What's your name?" "My name is Holly, Holly Hills." "Let's go to your place. I just arrived." "Sure." "By the way, you look cute." "Thanks."

We headed to Holly's place. It was very nice, but the thing is, she is living alone. "You're living alone? Don't you have a partner?" "I like to live alone. Besides, I really don't have that many friends." "I get it now." "Zoey, you've been my idol for a long time. Some people think you really don't exist. It's wonderful to finally meet you in person."

I decided to stay here temporarily, before I had enough money to get my own house. But it was a very nice house. It consisted of two floors with a balcony. On the second floor, there were two rooms but the second room was a storage room. I had to stay in Holly's bedroom for now. There was no other place to sleep beside her bed. "Is it okay if I sleep in your bed with you?" I asked her. "O-Okay, I guess," she replied. Night soon came. I slept in Holly's bed, lots of questions swirling through my head when Holly hugged me from the back. I'm scared of losing you, she mumbled. What?

Sunday, 1 June 2014

WHY IS 30 THE SAME AS 1?

WHY IS 30 THE SAME AS 1?
3 TO THE POWER OF 3 (33) MEANS THAT 1 MULTIPLIED BY 3 THREE TIMES, SINCE THE 3 IS HAVING THE POWER OF 3

THEREFORE,
33 = 1 * 3 * 3 * 3
 

SO THEN WHILE TALKING ABOUT 3 TO THE POWER OF ZERO (30), WE CAN SAY,
30 = 1 MULTIPLIED BY 3 ZERO TIMES..
 

THEREFORE,
30 = 1
 

IN OTHER WORDS,
30 = 1 MULTIPLIED BY ZERO 3'S

THEREFORE,

x0 = 1; x ≠ 0, BECAUSE 00 IS UNDEFINED.

Isotopes of oxygen

Isotopes of oxygen

Late in a massive star's life, Oxygen-16 concentrates in the O-shell, Oxygen-17 in the H-shell and Oxygen-18 in the He-shell.

Stable isotopes of oxygen include Oxygen-16, Oxygen-17 and Oxygen-18 while radioisotopes of oxygen are Oxygen-12, Oxygen-13, Oxygen-14, Oxygen-15, Oxygen-19, Oxygen-20, Oxygen-21, Oxygen-22, Oxygen-23, Oxygen-24 and Oxygen-26.

OXYGEN-13

Oxygen-13 is an unstable isotope of oxygen.  It consists of 8 protons, 5 neutrons and 8 electrons.  It has a spin of 3/2-, and a half life of 8.58 milliseconds.  Its atomic mass is 13.0248 Da.  It decays to nitrogen-13 by electron capture, and has a decay energy of 17.765 MeV. It's parent nuclide is fluorine-14.

OXYGEN-15

Oxygen-15 is an isotope of oxygen, frequently used in positron emission tomography or PET experiments.  It has 8 protons, 7 neutrons, and 8 electrons.  The total atomic mass is 15.0030654 amu. It has a half life of 122.24 seconds.  Oxygen-15 is synthesized through deuteron bombardment of nitrogen-14 using a cyclotron.

REFERENCES USED:


MY JOURNAL - JOURNEY OF LIFE

Sunday, 9th March 2014

Havoc! Havoc! Havoc! Havoc! The whole nation was shocked that the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777-200ER MH370 plane en route to Beijing disappeared and lost contact half an hour after takeoff from KLIA. It was carrying 227 passengers from fifteen nationalities and 12 crew members. Its last known position was 6o55’15”N 103o34’43”E. My whole family glued themselves to the television watching Astro Awani and CCTV China for the latest updates on the missing plane. I pray that MH370 will be found as soon as possible and in a safe condition.

I had a normal Sunday routine; swimming in the morning and later had a good brunch at a nearby restaurant. I like to eat at A. Hassan Ayam Kampung. The menu there is appealing and delicious. Later, the family urgently went to One Cinemas in Spectrum, Ampang to watch Pompeii.

Pompeii is about a slave turned invincible gladiator who finds himself in a race against time to save his true love, the beautiful daughter of a wealthy merchant who has been unwillingly betrothed to a corrupt Roman Senator. As Mount Vesuvius erupts in a torrent of blazing lava, he must fight his way out of the arena in order to save his beloved as the once magnificent Pompeii crumbles around him.
We thought we could watch another movie “300: Rise of an Empire” but we had to cancel it as it only starts at 3:45 p.m. as the time was 1:30 p.m. Furthermore, I had to continue my revision, complete my Agama Islam assignment and prepare a speech for my robot. In the evening, I continue my revision in Physics and Chemistry before I called it a day.

Monday, 10th March 2014
After Subuh prayer, I instantly switched on the television to continue getting the latest updates about the MH370 plane. So far, no evidence has been found but there been a lot of speculations and theories about the missing plane.

First, the plane may have landed at Nanning Airport in China. Secondly, it may have been hijacked like the MH653 in the year 1977 at Tanjung Kupang, Johor.
They found a new discovery; two passengers have boarded the flight with stolen passports of an Italian and an Austrian. They suspect that the two passengers were terrorists and hijackers.

I have uploaded my two video clips of the pieces “MARIAGE D’AMOUR” and “SOVUENIR D’ENFANCE” on Facebook. I’m very glad and happy because many people commented and liked the two pieces. Later, I updated my blog (http://www.zoeyzeffrey.blogspot.com) about the missing MH370 flight. I started to maintain this blog since I was five years old.

As usual, I continued my revision, this time, French, PJK and Agama Islam. I fetched my brother from school today. I was very happy that I could meet my friends and teachers. I was very happy to meet up with my old Mathematics teacher, Mr. Teh, who is 69 years old. He started teaching when he was 22 years old at a government school (at that time was English medium). After retiring, he joined Sri Chempaka International School and later joined Stella Maris Primary School. He was a great guru. He treated me to a drink then my friends, Melvert and Hakimi called me to follow them to their van so I could say hello. I was very, very, very happy to see my friends. They use the English medium to communicate unlike at PERMATApintarTM where they use the Malay medium to communicate. I have problems in the Malay language. Not many of my classmates are fluent in English. They look at me like a weird person as Malay who does master the Malay language. I come from an English- speaking family. My father is a lawyer with two firms in Kuala Lumpur and Shah Alam.

I studied at my first school, SAYFOL International School from Primary 1 till Primary 5. I followed the IGSCE and British syllabus over there. I have friends all over the world. Later, I moved to Stella Maris Primary School, Ampang and studied for two years.  This school, on the other hand, follows Malaysian and Singaporean syllabus.
At night, I continued revision again for Biology and Mathematics again before calling it a day.


Tuesday, 11th March 2014
Today, my father was on leave to supervise me at home. I had breakfast with my grandparents at Bukit Indah. This is one of our family’s favourite restaurants to have breakfast. My grandfather advised me; study hard, focus and always believe in myself and never forgetting to perform prayers and to recite Quran. My grandmother advised me to take care of my hygiene and to recite du’a before anything I do. I remembered that and will not forget to preach and practice every day.

I spent about one and a half hours to watch television to know more about the missing MH370 flight. I prayed that the people on board would be safe. To the family members, be strong and accept the fate and destiny in life.

I continued studying non-stop for Physics, Chemistry and Agama Islam. My father guided me in each subject. My father is very reliable and can be trusted all of the time. He did science stream when he did ‘O’ level and economics for ‘A’ level. He has three degrees from various universities i.e. Degree in Economics from University of Malaya, Degree in Law from University Technology of MARA and Degree in Islamic Law (Syariah) from the International Islamic University of Islam, Malaysia. My mother can teach me Mathematics since she has a degree and masters in Science from Universiti Utara Malaysia and Universiti Putra Malaysia. I’m very glad and lucky to have a family who can assist me in my studies. On top of that, I have special guidance by my uncle, Professor Dr. Azali, who is currently a Vice Chancellor of MARA Polytechnic, Malaysia. He guided me in achieving my dreams to be a cardio thoracic surgeon. He also updated me on the most recent universities all around the world. He also advised me to sit for ‘O’ level as a private candidate and later ‘A’ level in order to be accepted into the top universities in the United Kingdom especially the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. I have already decided not to take SAT, which means not studying in the United States of America but to take ‘A’ and ‘O’ level and to study in the University of Cambridge.

I practiced piano again since at PERMATApintarTM I do not have access to the piano. The piano has been moved from the DewanMakan to an unknown area. I hope they bring it out from its hiding place. The weakness of studying at the hostel is I cannot practice the piano whenever I like.
I went with my father to fetch my brother again. This time, I met more of my friends at school. I was very, very, very happy to see them again.
At night, I practiced my speech and printed out one for my partner, Hakim. There ends my day.


Wednesday, 12th March 2014

My father drove me to the hostel very early in the morning. I reached at about 7.05 a.m. After breakfast, I proceeded to the morning assembly. We got a briefing about the upcoming examination by Miss Ng. At 9.00 a.m., I went to class and did my own revision online. I went to http://www.brilliant.org to do Mathematics exercises. I prefer online revision to normal reading due to its syllabus. Online revision has an updated syllabus. At PermataPintar, we are only given two textbooks for Biology and Physics for revision. I’m very lucky that my cousins gave a lot of books to me for studying. We have not been given any library cards or online access to UKM Tun Sri Lanang Library as mentioned by Prof. DatukNoriah during the first briefing. I hope the faculty will look up this matter. We have to rely on online materials for assignments and revision. We are lucky that the WiFi speed is very fast and does not make videos buffer. But, we will often tend to glue ourselves to the computer of some of which them misinterpret that we are playing online games all the time. Furthermore, most of the announcements have been put on Facebook under Program PendidikanPermataPintar.

After tea at 10.30 a.m., I was called to the Meeting Room for a disciplinary case before the Discipline Committee. The meeting was chaired by Associate Prof. Dr. Arif. The meeting lasted for about less than an hour. I hope he will feel remorse and repented by his actions.


At night time, I had preparation classes at room. I’m very happy. Normally, I have preparation classes in my homeroom which is not conducive, noisy and uncontrollable. Everybody sits in their own group; I have to study on my own. I hope I can excel in my exams and pass with flying colors. At 10:30 p.m. I turned off the lights and went to sleep.

MY JOURNAL - JOURNEY OF LIFE

Saturday, 22nd March 2014

The first day of my mid-term break. Everything moved very slow and steady. As usual, as a Muslim, I started my day with Fajr prayers, and then continued sleeping. We had brunch at our favorite place; I had sunny side omelet with hash brown potatoes and a cup of tea with mint leaves.
We stopped at a bookshop; Kinokuniya at Level 4 of KLCC. This is one of my favorite bookstores and sometimes I treat this place as a library for free and easy reading. I love this place very much. It has a large variety of books, especially Japanese Manga and Dragon Ball. I have a small collection of Dragon Ball comics and CDs of Kamen Rider.

We adjourned to a cinema to watch a new movie; 300: The Rise of an Empire. When I was at Sayfol International School, I learned about the history of the Ancient Egyptians, the Romans, the Greeks, the Anglo-Saxons, the Vikings and the Tudors. I appreciate this genre of movie. This movie was directed by Noam Murro and this was a prequel and sequel to the 2007 film "300", Zack Snyder's fictionalized retelling of the Battle of Thermopylae, where King Leonidas leads 300 Spartans into battle against Persian "God King" Xerxes and his army of more than one million soldiers. The film covers the Battle of Artemisia (a possible reference to the Battle of Salamis or the Battle of Artemisium which was concurrent with the battle at Thermopylae) was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states and the Persian Empire in September 480 BC, in the straits between the mainland and Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens. It marked the high point of the second Persian invasion of Greece which had begun in 480 BC. It will also cover some of Xerxes' backstory, explaining how he became the "God King".

The movie was very cruel, especially the war scenes, but it was totally worth watching it. I plan to watch Captain America before coming back to the hostel. My family, especially my mother, loves watching movies.
At night, I did revision for Additional and Modern Mathematics for my upcoming Level One exam for Add Math and Modern Math under Miss Suzaina’s supervision. I have completed my Modern Mathematics and Additional Mathematics for Form 4 and 5 last year, under tutelage of Encik Ahmat. He was an amazing teacher who guided me in all the topics. I give my thanks to him for helping me come this far. Later, I updated my blog and played computer games; Minecraft. I also checked my Facebook and Instagram before I ended my day.

Sunday, 23rd March 2014
Today was very thrilling as my family and I had the opportunity to go to Sunway Lagoon today. It has been a long time since I last went to Sunway Lagoon. The last time I went there was about two years ago, when I was ten years. I woke up at 6.30 a.m. for Subuh prayers in congregation led by my father, and then recited ‘zikir’ and ‘dua’. At around 8.30 a.m., after showering, dressing up and having breakfast, we brought our bags to the car and drove for 30 minutes to Sunway Lagoon.

Since today was a Sunday, the traffic was very smooth and we arrived at Sunway Lagoon at 9.30 a.m. When we arrived at the counter, there were not many people lining up to buy tickets. My father paid for the Family Package, which is only offered during school holidays, for two children and two adults for about RM275. He also uploaded RM150 to the bracelets since all of the purchases made in Sunway Lagoon were made cashless. We waited until 10.00 a.m. before entering the big theme park. While waiting to enter, I was very excited and many foreigners were cueing to enter, especially the tourists from the Middle East. When we entered the park, we were greeted by many of the theme park’s mascots. I was surprised when I saw three of the mascots; a big monster, an axe-wielding killer and another pole-holding killer. We also took photos with them.

We started by going to the Water Park. We changed to our swimming attire and went to the Wave Pool, a long pool with depths from 0.5 meters to 2.2+ meters which has artificial waves. We put our belongings near the pool under a hut and then my parents rented a double tube from the rental counter for RM30. We then played in the Wave Pool for a while before I headed to two other rides with my brother.
This time, I have decided to try all of the extreme rides. The last visit, I was scared to try. The first ride was the slithery adventures of the African Pythons. I felt scared in the beginning, but it was fun on the other hand. Later, I tried the six-lane Congo Challenge, which was full of adrenaline and thrill.Finally, I tried the Cameroon Climb with my brother, Ryan. My brother and I never shouted or closed our eyes and enjoyed during the trip down the very slithery and watery adventures on the wild side of the Waters of Africa.

 After a few trials on the rides, at around 12:30 p.m., we had lunch at Station One restaurant. We ate chicken rice and had coke for drinks. After lunch, I proceeded to the next ride, one of the best rides in Sunway Lagoon; the Vuvuzela. The Vuvuzela is the world’s highest, largest and most thrilling water ride. Its slide with twists and turns of 152 meters and its 22-meter long funnel. On the first try, I climbed the eleven-storey high staircase, and then rocketed through a thrilling series of twist and turns of 152 meters in length which can be likened to riding in rapids in a flooding river. The raft plummeted into the world’s largest water funnel of 22 meters in diameter and experienced zero gravity. I shot up the other side of the funnel to reach the apex of the Vuvuzela through similar thrilling oscillations before exiting the flume in one final splashtacular plunge. The Vuvuzela was thrilling, big and loud. It was very scary and awesome. The raft almost turned 90o. After going on the scary slide, I went for a second time, this time with my brother.

Later, we adjourned to the dry parks. We started with the Scream Park. When we arrived at the Scream Park, we entered the Haunted House. In the Haunted House, many of the things in it scared me; the zombies and the sounds of door shutting. I was at the back of the line. Unknowingly, a zombie tried to walk behind my father. At the end of the Haunted House, an axe-wielding killer suddenly appeared, swinging his axe, almost hitting me. I felt very shocked, surprised and scared.

After the Haunted House, we went on the Wheel Wagon, a Ferris wheel to cool down and remove the stress from the Haunted House. After that, we went to another ride. It was very nice. It was a very fun, thrilling, surprising and memorable day for me. This time, I was not like was before; now I am willing to take the risk, all for enjoyment. That ends my day.

Monday, 24th March 2014
Third day of my mid-term break. My dad and mum were working that day. They placed me at my grandparents’ house in the adjacent neighborhood. I took along a load of books and my novel, The Testament by John Grisham. I have a very wide variety of John Grisham, James Patterson and Agatha Christie as well as J.K. Rowling novels but my favorite authors are still John Grisham and James Patterson.
My mother has a huge collection of novels, especially about women-related issues. Her favorite series is the Twilight series by Stephanie Meyer and the Sophie Kinsella series. We have a mini library in our house with a collection of around two thousand books, including three set of encyclopedia and a collection of bibliographies and memoirs like Prophet Muhammad s.a.w., Tun Mahathir, Lee Kuan Yew, Mathma Ghandi, Nelson Mandela, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg. We also have caricatures of Dato’ Latt.

In the afternoon, I went to the mosque with my grandfather to pray Zuhur. My grandfather retired auditors from Felda Trading and is currently an insurance agent of Etiqa. He is a very kind, pious and gentle man. Later, I helped my grandmother to sort out the clothes, thread and clean up the mess. My grandmother is a tailor. She can sew clothes and women’s scarf (tudung). She has her own collection of designs. She is also a ‘tudung’ designer. She sells about forty to fifty pieces a week. She is also able to sew curtains and ‘baju kurung’. She is very details and dedicated to her work. She also is good in cooking. She took care of my brother and I since the first day we were born. She is strict but has a pure heart. She always advices me to pray as instructed by Allah s.w.t. She is also very pious and always recites the Quran.

At night, I continued with the revision for Mathematics and started with Chemistry. As usual, I updated my Instagram, Facebook and played games. Though I am busy with other matters, I never forget to update myself of the latest news of the ill-fated flight MH370. After our Prime Minister announced that the MH370 flight ended in the Southern Indian Ocean, I felt very sad and would like to give my deepest condolences to the relatives of the passengers and crew of the MH370 flight. I also did research on the Doppler Effect of how Inmarsat is able to trace the journey of MH370 towards the Southern Corridor. That ends my day.

Tuesday, 25th March 2014
As usual, we started our day as what Muslims do. I followed my father to his office. My father has his own legal firm known as MESSRS. AZAM IDZHAM AZMAN & PARTNERS in Kuala Lumpur and Shah Alam. I love to come to my father’s office due to its high UniFi speed, 10 gigabytes. It is really fast. I can download games and videos in no time.
On the same time, I learned French from YouTube and surfed the Internet on MH370’s updates. In the evening, I just watched television; Korean drama. That ends my day.

Wednesday, 26th March 2014
As usual, we started our day as what Muslims do. I still followed my father to his office. I finished up my James Patterson novel for the whole day.
I updated my blog, Facebook and Instagram. Not many activities today. I just let the time flow. At night, I continued my Mathematics revision to prepare for the exam after the mid-term break. Later on, I just watched TV before going to sleep. That ends my day.

Thursday, 27th March 2014
As usual, we started our day with prayers and d’ua. I still followed my father to his office. I continued downloading games, videos and songs to my iPhone 3GS.
On the same time, I continued learning French from YouTube and updated my blog, Facebook and Instagram. At night, I recited Quran and learned Agama with my father. Later on, I just watched TV before going to sleep. That ends my day.

Friday, 28th March 2014
Today, my parents decided to go to Muar. We started our day at 6.45 a.m. Since today was a Friday, after Fajr prayers, we continued with zikir, tahlil and dua. My father continued reciting Al-Kahfi. My mother was busy packing and I was busy arranging all of my stuff to take back to the hostel. We decided to stop at PermataPintar on the way to Muar.

On the way to Muar, I checked Facebook and continued doing my revision on Chemistry. I also started to write my journal after seeing a post from Miss Dee on the K3: Foundation 1 group. I quite prefer to write it in Microsoft Word instead of pens due to its easy editing process. I also called Hakim to inform about the post. We intend to stop at Hakim’s house in Tangkak, Muar but due to the short time available, we proceeded straight to Muar town. The first stop was my uncle’s house. He was not well and he was recently discharged from the hospital due to lung problem. I played with my cousins and each of us updated on our studies.

The next house was my aunt’s house. Her house is surrounded by an orchard of mangosteens, durians, dukus, and rambutans. She is very kind but her husband is having a prostate problem and is in the process of curing. I also continued my journal at my aunt’s house.

Every time we visit Muar, we never fail to enjoy Muar food, especially mee bandung, mee rebus, satay, rojak petis and nasi briyani. The food in Muar is very mouth-watering. Muar is also famous for its green mussels. We’re used to cook spaghetti bolognaise with seafood, especially prawns and mussels.
While we were enjoying food under the sky at the Muar riverbank, all of a sudden, it started to rain. Luckily, we almost finished our meal and urgently back to the hotel. We stayed at Muar Traders Hotel facing the Muar River and close to the Straits of Malacca. Another beauty of Muar is Tanjung Muar, which was decorated with trees of light. My family played kites and light toys. It was so fun. Further, I like to see the sunset at the Muar River facing the Straits of Malacca. It is so beautiful and cool.

I continued updating the journal up to this day and ended it here, in my hotel bed, all cozy and comfy. That ends my day.

SEJARAH - ASSIGNMENT - SEMESTER 1 2014 - FOUNDATION 1

Soalan 1
Berbagai kaedah pengkajian sejarah dalam membuktikan bahawa pelbagai sumber sejarah yang dibuktikan kesahihannya. Bincang kaedah-kaedah pengkajian sejarah tersebut. Berikan contoh:

a.      Kaedah lisan ->

-          Sumber lisan ialah sesuatu yang diucapkan atau diberitahu oleh orang sumber
-          Ahli sejarah memperolehi maklumat sejarah malalui cerita-cerita lisan atau pengucapan oleh seseorang tokoh
-          Maklumat yang diperolehi terus daripada responden melalui ucapan, penceritaan dan perbualan dinamakan kaedah lisan
-          Sumber sejarah yang diperolehi melalui akedah lisan berkait rapat dengan sasterarakyat seperti mitos, lagenda dan puisi
-          Ahli sejarah perlu mengelakkan diri daripada memasukkan unsur tokok tambah
-          Ilmu sains dan teknologi menyebabkan televisyen, internet, televedio, cakera padat pita rakaman menjadi sumber lisan utama. Ini juga dikenali sebagai kaedah pandang dengar
-          Menonton berita dan liputan secara langsung melalui televisyen dianggap sebagai sumber lisan
-          Kaedah mendapat sumber lisan yang lain ialah melalui :
                                                       [i]            Temu ramah atau perbualan.
                                                     [ii]            Penceritaan atau pengkisahan.
-          Kaedah temuramah dan penceritaan ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan latar belakang ataupun pandangan daripada seorang tokoh


b.      Kaedah bertulis ->

-          Sumber bertulis terdiri daripada catatan yang ditulis, dilakar atau dipahat pada :
                                                     [i]            batu
                                                   [ii]            dinding gua;
                                                 [iii]            kulit kayu;
                                                  [iv]            daun kayu;
                                                    [v]            logam;
                                                  [vi]            gading;
                                                [vii]            kertas
-          Melalui sumber ini, ahli sejarawan boleh memperoleh maklumat mengenai sesuatu :
                                                     [i]            perkara;
                                                   [ii]            peristiwa;
                                                 [iii]            tokoh;
                                                  [iv]            kejadian;
                                                    [v]            perundangan;
                                                  [vi]            adat resam.
-          Contoh sumber bertulis yang terkenal ialah Batu Bersurat Terengganu yang dijumpai pada 1303 Masihi di Kuala Berang Terengganu.  Contoh lain ialah Sejarah Melayu mengenai Kesultanan Melayu Melaka.

c.       Kaedah arkeologi ->

-          Melalui kaedah arkeologi, fakta yang diperolehi didapati dengan proses gali cari bahan-bahan purba yang tertanam di dalam tanah atau dasar laut
-          Juga merupakan kajian saintifik.
-          Barang-barang yang dijumpai dikenali sebagai artifak yang dapat menjelaskan kegiatan dan kebudayaan manusia zaman dahulu. Kebanyakan bahan ini disimpan di Muzium Negara atau Arkib Negara.
-          Contoh melalui kaedah arkeologi ialah fosil, monumen dan candi seperti Candi Lembah Bujang, Kedah.

Rujukan:
Nota & Praktis yes! Sejarah Tingkatan 1 – Sasbadi Sdn. Bhd.
WHIZZ THRU Sejarah TINGKATAN 1, 2 & 3 – Oxford Fajar









Soalan 2
Sebagai seorang pelajar, bagaimana caranya untuk anda menghayati tujuan mempelajari sejarah?
Sebagai seorang pelajar, kita mestilah tahu tentang sejarah tamadun awal bangsa dengan melawat seperti Muzium Negara ataupun Arkib Negara. Melaluinya kita dapat melahirkan jati diri yang tinggi serta membentuk keperibadian bangsa dengan menghapuskan rasa rendah diri.
Selain itu, dengan menghayati sambutan Pengisytiharan Hari Kemerdekaan pada 31 Ogos 1957, kita boleh mengetahui bagaimana kita bebas daripada penjajahan British. Kita juga boleh mengenali tokoh pejuang seperti Tuanku Abdul Rahman Putra yang berusaha sehingga Berjaya mendapatkan kemerdekaan kepada Tanah Melayu. Begitu juga Tok Janggut yang berjuang menghalau para penjajah.  Melaluinya kita akan lebih menghargai usaha dan jasa pemimpin masa dulu dan masa sekarang.
Seterusnya, sejarah mengajar kita agar berhati-hati untuk tidak mengulangi kesilapan lampau seperti peristiwa 13 Mei 1969 di mana berlakunya pertumpahan darah di antara kaum Cina  dan Melayu sehingga darurat terpaksa diisytihar.
Kita juga boleh mempelajari sejarah dengan memahami Perlembagaan Persekutuan yang mana membincangkan kontrak sosial, hak keistimewaan orang Melayu, hak Persekutuan serta hak negeri-negeri.

Rujukan:
Nota & Praktis yes! Sejarah Tingkatan 1 – Sasbadi Sdn. Bhd.
WHIZZ THRU Sejarah TINGKATAN 1, 2 & 3 – Oxford Fajar






Soalan 3
Apakah pendapat anda tentang teori Charles Darwin dan berikan sebab anda berpendapat demikian.
Charles Darwin adalah seorang naturalis berbangsa Inggeris.  Buku Charles Darwin iaitu On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life merupakan karya terkenal sehingga kini. Buku ini menjelaskan evolusi mengenai garis keturunan yang sama.
Dalam teorinya ia mengatakan: "Suatu benda (bahan) mengalami perubahan dari yang tidak sempurna menuju kepada kesempurnaan".Kemudian ia memperluas teorinya ini hingga sampai kepada asal-usul manusia. Menurutnya manusia sekarang ini adalah hasil yang paling sempurna dari perkembangan tersebut secara teratur oleh hukum-hukum mekanik seperti halnya tumbuhan dan haiwan.  Kemudian lahirlah suatu ajaran(pengertian) bahwa manusia yang ada sekarang ini merupakan hasil evolusi dari kera-kera besar (manusia kera berjalan tegak) selama bertahun-tahun dan telah mencapai bentuk yang paling sempurna.
Hal ini diantaranya merupakan kelemahan teori yang dikemukakan oleh Darwin. Di dalam teorinya Darwin berpendapat bahawa manusia berasal dari perkembangan makhluk sejenis kera yang sederhana kemudian berkembang menjadi haiwan kera tingkat tinggi sampai akhirnya menjadi manusia. Makhluk yang tertua yang ditemukan dengan bentuk mirip manusia adalah Australopithecus yang diperkirakan umurnya antara 350.000 - 1.000.000 tahun dengan ukuran otak sekitar 450 - 1450 cm3. Perkembangan dengan perubahan volume otak ini besar pengaruhnya bagi kecerdasan otak manusia. Australopithecus yang mempunyai volume otak rata-rata 450 cm3 berevolusi menjadi manusia kera (Neandertal) yang mempunyai volume otak 1450 cm3. Dari penelitian ini diperkirakan dalam waktu antara 400.000-500.000 tahun volume otak itu bertambah 1000 cm3. Tetapi anehnya perkembangan dari Neandertal ke manusia modern sekarang ini selama ± 100.000 tahun volume otaknya tidak berkembang. Teori ini tidak mengemukakan alasannya.
Jadi secara jujur dapat kita katakan bahawa teori yang dianggap ilmiah itu ternyata tidak mutlak kerana antara teori dengan kenyataan tidak dapat dibuktikan.



Saya yang beragama Islam tidak bersetuju dengan teori Charles Darwin di atas. Allah s.w.t melalui Al Qur’an telah menjelaskan bahawa wujudnya alam semesta ini berikut segala isinya diciptakan oleh Allah. Hal ini dinyatakan dengan firman Allah:
"Yang menciptakan langit dan bumi dan apa yang ada iantara keduanya dalam enam masa, kemudian Dia bersemayam diatas Arsy (Dialah) Yang Maha Pemurah, maka tanyakanlah itu kepada Yang Maha Mengetahui." (QS. Al Furqaan (25) : 59)
"...dan Dia telah menciptakan segala sesuatu, dan Dia menetapkan ukuran-ukurannya dengan serapi-rapinya" (QS. Al Furqaan (25) : 2)
Oleh itu, saya berpendapat bahawa teori evolusi Darwin tidak dapat diterima. Dari penelitian membuktikan bahawa kurun akhir adalah masa dimana mulai muncul manusia yang berbudaya dan Allah menciptakan lima kurun sebelumnya lengkap dengan segala isinya adalah untuk memenuhi kehendak yang diperlukan oleh manusia. Hal ini dijelaskan oleh Allah di dalam satu firman-Nya:
"Dia-lah Allah, yang menjadikan segala yang ada di bumi untuk kamu dan Dia berkehendak (menciptakan) langit, lalu dijadikan-Nya tujuh langit. Dan Dia Maha Mengetahui atas segala sesuatu" (QS Al Baqarah (2) : 29)
Kemudian di dalam surat Al Baqarah ayat 31 s/d 32 Allah berfirman:
"Dan Dia mengajarkan kepada Adam nama-nama (benda-benda) seluruhnya, kemudian mengemukakannya kepada para Malaikat lalu berfirman : ‘Sebutlah kepada-Ku nama benda-benda itu jika kamu memang orang-orang yang benar!’. Mereka menjawab : ‘Maha Suci Engkau, tidak ada yang kami ketahui selain daripada apa yang telah Engkau ajarkan kepada kami; Sesungguhnya Engkaulah yang Maha Mengetahui lagi Maha Bijaksana (QS. Al Baqarah (2): 31-32)
Untuk memelihara kelebihan ilmu yang dimiliki oleh Adam a.s maka Allah berkenan menurunkan kepada semua keturunannya agar darjat mereka lebih tinggi daripada makhluk yang lain.
"Ingatlah ketika Tuhanmu berfirman kepada para Malaikat : ‘Sesungguhnya Aku hendak menjadikan seorang khalifah di muka bumi’. Mereka berkata : ‘Mengapa Engkau hendak menjadikan (khalifah) di bumi itu orang yang akan membuat kerusakan padanya dan menumpahkan darah, padahal kami senantiasa bertasbih dengan memuji Engkau dan mensucikan Engkau?’. Tuhan berfirman : ‘Sesungguhnya Aku mengetahui apa yang tdak kamu ketahui’."(QS. Al Baqarah (2): 30)

Berdasarkan ayat-ayat Al Quran di atas, dapatlah dibuat kesimpulan bahawa Adam a.s adalah manusia pertama, khalifah pertama dan Rasul (nabi) pertama. Hal ini sesuai dengan firman Allah:
"Dan tidak ada suatu umatpun (manusia) melainkan telah ada padanya seorang pemberi peringatan (Nabi)." (QS. Fathir : 24)
"Tiap-tiap umat mempunyai Rasul." (QS. Yunus : 47)
Saya tidak bersetuju tentang teori Charles Darwin berasaskan sebab-sebab saya nyatakan di atas.

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